| Tenses | Numbers | Symbols | Statistics | Italicisation | Abbreviations & acronyms | Units | Dates | Time| Species names | Geographic names | Text | Title | Author | Address | Abstract | Headings | Appendices | Footnotes | Lists | Equations | Tables | Figures | References |

Instructions to Authors

(see also the most recent issues for examples of typesetting and formatting)


The entire manuscript (incl. figures and tables) should be converted into a PDF format and sent by e-mail as one PDF file along with a properly-completed Submission form directly to the editor whose area of expertise covers the subject of the paper. For details please select 'SUBMISSIONS' from the left-hand-side menu.

Revised or final versions of manuscripts

When sending a revised or a final version manuscript, use short, meaningful filenames always ending in appropriate extensions added by the programme with which files have been created. Save word-processor files in an .rtf or MSWord .doc format. Acceptable graphic file formats are listed below in the 'Figures' section and in the short instructions (PDF format) that can be download from HERE. As a reference, a PDF file of an entire article should also be sent. Please note that there is a charge for printing illustrations in colour (please contact the editorial office at sekj[at]helsinki.fi for details and current rates).

Please note that the copyrights to the article (including the illustrations) remain with the authors until they are transferred to the publising board by signing the Transfer of Copyrights provided along with the proofs.

Use either British or American English consistently throughout the text (language settings of your word processing programme should reflect the langauge of the article). Write in a clear style and avoid the use of the passive voice. The pronouns I (we), me (us), and my (our) should preferably be used. If English is not your mother tongue, make sure that the manuscript is checked by a native English speaker, preferably familiar with the nomenclature used. All manuscripts will be thoroughly checked by someone proficient in English, and returned for further corrections if found to be linguistically inadequate.

Certain elements of the manuscript layout (e.g. heading numbers) that are requested here but not present in the printed articles are, however, needed to facilitate the editing process.

Tenses [back to the top]

In scientific writing, only two tenses are normally used: present and past (simple). So-called `perfect tenses' (e.g. present perfect) should be avoided. Thus, there are the following `tense' rules that should be observed:

Usage of a dash (hyphen, en-dash and em-dash)

Numbers [back to the top]

Symbols [back to the top]

Statistics [back to the top]

Italicisation [back to the top]

Abbreviations and acronyms [back to the top]

Units [back to the top]

Dates [back to the top]

Time [back to the top]

Species names [back to the top]

Geographic nomenclature [back to the top]

Text [back to the top]

Final remarks

The first or appointed author will receive proofs of the article. Errors caused by editorial or linguistic alterations will be corrected free of charge. Other substantial corrections, especially if they alter the final layout, may be corrected for a fee. We do not assume responsibility for misinterpretation of illegibly marked corrections. The proofs with both attached forms (filled in) should be returned to the Editorial Office exclusively by mail within 48 hours of their arrival. Errors found after the proofs had been returned may not be corrected.