ISSN 1239-6095 (print),   ISSN 1797-2469 (online)
© Boreal Environment Research 2013

Contents of Volume 18 Supplement A

Vodde, F., Köster, K., Metslaid, M. & Kuuluvainen, T. 2013: Preface to the Special Issue: The Impact of ungulates and Other Mammalian Herbivores on Forest Ecosystems. Boreal Env. Res. 18 (suppl. A): 1–3.
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Hannon, G. & Bradshaw, R. H. W. 2013: Long-term consequences for vegetation of ungulate introductions to North Atlantic Islands. Boreal Env. Res. 18 (suppl. A): 4–12.
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Nummi, P. & Kuuluvainen, T. 2013: Forest disturbance by an ecosystem engineer: beaver in boreal forest landscapes. Boreal Env. Res. 18 (suppl. A): 13–24.
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Metslaid, M., Palli, T., Randveer, T., Sims, A., Jõgiste, K. & Stanturf, J. A. 2013: The condition of Scots pine stands in Lahemaa National Park, Estonia 25 years after browsing by moose (Alces alces). Boreal Env. Res. 18 (suppl. A): 25–34.
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Köster, E., Köster, K., Aurela, M., Laurila, T., Berninger, F., Lohila, A. & Pumpanen, J. 2013: Impact of reindeer herding on vegetation biomass and soil carbon content: a case study from Sodankyl√§, Finland. Boreal Env. Res. 18 (suppl. A): 35–42.
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Bouchard, K., Wiedenhoeft, J. E., Wydeven, A. P. & Rooney, T. P. 2013: Wolves facilitate the recovery of browse-sensitive understory herbs in Wisconsin forests. Boreal Env. Res. 18 (suppl. A): 43–49.
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Stout, S. L., Royo, A. A., deCalesta, D. S., McAleese, K. & Finley, J. C. 2013: The Kinzua Quality Deer Cooperative: can adaptive management and local stakeholder engagement sustain reduced impact of ungulate browsers in forest systems? Boreal Env. Res. 18 (suppl. A): 50–64.
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Hannon, G. & Bradshaw, R. H. W. 2013: Long-term consequences for vegetation of ungulate introductions to North Atlantic Islands. Boreal Env. Res. 18 (suppl. A): 4–12.

The Faroe Islands are relatively treeless today, but were more heavily wooded in the past. Woody vegetation disappeared following the arrival of people and their grazing livestock in the mid-700s AD, but there is some recent plantation in fenced areas. While soil conditions and exposure to wind and salt spray undoubtedly restricted the area of suitable habitat for woody vegetation in the past, climatic conditions were probably favourable for the growth of several woody species. There are no large natural herbivores so the relatively late introduction of pastoral and agricultural farming had a profound effect on the natural vegetation, transforming the flora on these relatively small islands, contributing to a widespread change in vegetation and removal of the limited, native woody cover.
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Nummi, P. & Kuuluvainen, T. 2013: Forest disturbance by an ecosystem engineer: beaver in boreal forest landscapes. Boreal Env. Res. 18 (suppl. A): 13–24.

Natural disturbances are important for forest ecosystem dynamics and maintenance of biodiversity. In the boreal forest, large-scale disturbances such as wildfires and windstorms have been emphasized, while disturbance agents acting at smaller scales have received less attention. Especially in Europe beavers have long been neglected as forest disturbance agents because they were extirpated from most of their range centuries ago. However, now they are returning to many parts of their former distribution range. As a disturbance agent, beaver plays two roles: of an ecosystem engineer and of a herbivore. The engineering impact is realized through dam construction resulting in a transformation of an originally terrestrial ecosystem into an aquatic one. As herbivores, beavers affect stand structure and tree species composition by preferring deciduous trees over coniferous ones. After abandonment, a beaver pond gradually turns into a terrestrial habitat again. At well-drained sites, forest will return in due course, first dominated by deciduous trees. At poorly drained sites, moistness of beaver patches may result in fen development. We conclude that beaver has an important impact on ecosystem processes and biodiversity in boreal forest ecosystems because it creates and maintains a spatio-temporal mosaic of successional habitats and associated species communities that would otherwise not exist in the landscape.
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Metslaid, M., Palli, T., Randveer, T., Sims, A., Jõgiste, K. & Stanturf, J. A. 2013: The condition of Scots pine stands in Lahemaa National Park, Estonia 25 years after browsing by moose (Alces alces). Boreal Env. Res. 18 (suppl. A): 25–34.

The effects after 25 years of moose browsing on Scots pine stands in Lahemaa National Park were evaluated, emphasizing economic damage. A re-evaluation in 2001 examined stands that had been evaluated in 1975–1976. Moose damage significantly affected the tree species composition which changed over time as pine dominance increased and the number of mixed stands declined. The smaller proportion of severely damaged pine trees in more pine-dominated stands and on poor sites in the first evaluation in 1975–1976 may indicate that moose preferentially browsed the available broadleaved tree species. In 2001 there was a lower proportion of severely damaged trees overall and stands with higher density had smaller percentages of moderately and severely damaged trees. Stands on poor sites had more damaged pines than in 1975–1976, but also a greater proportion of undamaged and lightly damaged trees.
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Köster, E., Köster, K., Aurela, M., Laurila, T., Berninger, F., Lohila, A. & Pumpanen, J. 2013: Impact of reindeer herding on vegetation biomass and soil carbon content: a case study from Sodankyl√§, Finland. Boreal Env. Res. 18 (suppl. A): 35–42.

Factors that strongly affects the dynamics of ground vegetation in northern boreal forests are grazing and trampling by reindeers. Cladina stellaris, which is the main species of lichen in northern areas, is also an important food source for reindeer. The population of reindeer is high, and it has a considerable influence on the boreal forest ecosystems. In this study, we describe the reindeer herding effects on above- and below-ground vegetation and on soil carbon (C) content. We compared the changes on both sides of a fence that has excluded reindeer from one area for the last 50 years. As expected, in the grazed area there were significantly smaller amounts of lichens and other vegetation. Total above-ground biomass as well as that of trees was higher in the area where no reindeer grazing occurred. In the ungrazed area, the tree-diameter distribution was strongly skewed towards thinner trees. There was no significant effect of reindeer grazing on the soil C content.
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Bouchard, K., Wiedenhoeft, J. E., Wydeven, A. P. & Rooney, T. P. 2013: Wolves facilitate the recovery of browse-sensitive understory herbs in Wisconsin forests. Boreal Env. Res. 18 (suppl. A): 43–49.

We asked whether wolf re-colonization would facilitate increased growth and reproduction of three browse-sensitive plant species. We hypothesized plant size and the proportion of reproductive individuals would be lowest in areas with no wolves, intermediate where wolves had been present for 4–6 years, and highest where wolves had been present for 12–13 years. Two plant species exhibited significantly greater reproduction where wolves were present for 12–13 years. Mean leaf size of indicator plants was significantly greater in areas where wolves were present for 12–13 years, as compared with that in areas where wolves were not present or were present for 4–6 years, but the effect size appears small. While the return of wolves to this region is likely to benefit browse-sensitive plant species, our findings suggest that wolf recovery will not generate a trophic cascade of sufficient magnitude to halt or reverse the loss of plant diversity in the Great Lakes region in the near term.
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Stout, S. L., Royo, A. A., deCalesta, D. S., McAleese, K. & Finley, J. C. 2013: The Kinzua Quality Deer Cooperative: can adaptive management and local stakeholder engagement sustain reduced impact of ungulate browsers in forest systems? Boreal Env. Res. 18 (suppl. A): 50–64.

The Kinzua Quality Deer Cooperative (KQDC) was established in 2000 to test new approaches to stewardship of white-tailed deer and forest habitat on a 30000 hectare landscape in northwest Pennsylvania, USA. Partners included land managers, scientists, educators, tourism promoters, and hunters. KQDC goals were adaptive management of the deer herd, improved habitat quality and deer herd attributes, and sustained hunter participation. The KQDC's tools included novel Pennsylvania Game Commission programs, habitat management, monitoring of deer and habitat, and hunter outreach. Over the first decade, deer densities in KQDC declined by 50%. Deer weight and antler characteristics improved. Browse impact on woody seedlings declined. Herbaceous indicator plants improved. The need to fence regeneration harvests declined. Hunter participation met KQDC goals for deer density and impact. The authors, research scientists and participants in the cooperative, report the results of this case study here including outcomes from ecological research and monitoring and observations of the KQDC itself.
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